The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes(Red Blood Cells). The classification of human blood was based on the inherited properties of red blood cells as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. Persons may thus have type A, type B, type O, or type AB blood.
The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner who was working at the Pathological-Anatomical Institute of the University of Vienna (now Medical University of Vienna ),were he discovered that blood sera from different persons would clump together when mixed in test tubes, and that some human blood also agglutinated with animal blood. This great discovery earned him the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1930. ABO blood types are also present in some other animals such as rodents and apes, including chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas.
Blood containing cells with type A antigen on their surface has in its serum (fluid) antibodies against type B red cells. If, in transfusion, type B blood is injected into persons with type A blood, the red cells in the injected blood will be destroyed by the antibodies in the recipient’s blood. In the same way, type A red cells will be destroyed by anti-A antibodies in type B blood.
Type O blood can be injected into persons with type A, B, or O blood unless there is incompatibility with respect to some other blood group system also present, and this gives it the name universal donor. Persons with type AB blood can receive type A, B, or O blood and with that it is called universal recipient.
According to scientific investigation, blood group O is the most common blood type throughout the world, particularly among peoples of South and Central America . Type B is prevalent in Asia, especially in northern India. Type A also is common all over the world; the highest frequency is among Australian Aboriginal peoples , the Blackfoot Indians of Montana, and the Sami people of northern Scandinavia.
Vital information associated with each of the blood type
BLOOD TYPE A
-Mosquitos are less attracted to you than to other blood types
-20% higher chances of developing stomach cancer compared with types O and B
5% increased risk of heart disease compared to other types.
BLOOD TYPE B
-Type B has 50,000 times the number of strains of friendly bacteria than A or O types
-11% increased risk of heart disease than type O
-Type B women have a raised risk of developing ovarian cancer
BLOOD TYPE AB
-Type AB+ is the universal blood recipient.
-23% increased risk of heart disease compared with type O
-Pregnant women are at an increased risk for developing preeclampsia